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LS(1)                             User Commands                             LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort
       entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

              use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of  last  modification  of
              file  status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name oth
              erwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

              colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to `always' or can  be  `never'
              or `auto'.  More info below

       -d, --directory
              list  directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference
              symbolic links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

              likewise, except do not append `*'

              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x,  long  -l,  single-column  -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

              group directories before files.

              augment  with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) dis
              ables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN  (overridden  by
              -a or -A)

              append  indicator  with  style WORD to entry names: none (default),
              slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information
              for the file the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print  raw  entry  names  (don't treat e.g. control characters spe

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program  is  `ls'
              and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

              use  quoting  style  WORD  for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

              sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S,  time
              -t, version -v

              with  -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u,
              access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use  specified  time  as
              sort key if --sort=time

              with  -l,  show  times  using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
              locale, +FORMAT.  FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if  FORMAT  is
              FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  FORMAT1  applies  to non-recent files and
              FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-',  STYLE
              takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time
              and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any SELinux security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

              append .exe if cygwin magic was needed

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one  of  follow
       ing: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E,
       Z, Y.

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with
       --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard
       output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment variable can
       change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

       Report ls bugs to

       Report Cygwin bugs to:
       GNU coreutils home page: <>
       General help using GNU software: <>
       Report ls translation bugs to <>

       Packaged by Cygwin (8.5-2)
       Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       License      GPLv3+:      GNU      GPL      version     3     or     later
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If  the
       info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.5                   June 2010                               LS(1)